Innovation, Competitiveness and Resource Efficiency

Innovation, Competitiveness
and Resource Efficiency
Meeting Report
WRF is an independent non-profit international organization that serves as a platform connecting and fostering
knowledge exchange on resources management amongst
business leaders, policy-makers, NGOs, scientists and the
This report was drafted by Bas de Leeuw, Sonia Valdivia,
Mathias Schluep, Ana Quiros, Philip Strothmann, Julio Díaz
and Angel Versetti based upon inputs from workshop reporters, speakers and participants. The report has not been
reviewed by the speakers.
Manuel Zuñiga Villarreal
Ministry of the Environment of Peru
Technical support and layout María Lucía Híjar (WRF)
Brigitte Bänziger, Urs Bünter (Empa)
St. Gallen, Switzerland, April 2015
ISBN 978-3-906177-09-0
Contact information Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
WRF Secretariat Phone + 41 71 554 09 00
[email protected]
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Table of contents Chairman‘s Summary
Photo Gallery 8
Selected Workshop Highlights 10
3. Overview Scientific Sessions and Awards
Participants Survey 32
Appendix 1: Programme
Appendix 2: Scientific Sessions Programme
Appendix 3: Poster Exhibition
Appendix 4: Committees 42
Appendix 5: Sponsors and Partners 46
Meeting Report 2014 I Page 5
Chairman’s Summary
1. Over 1,000 participants coming from 40
countries and international organisations
attended and actively contributed to World
Resources Forum 2014 in Arequipa, Peru, on
20–22 October 2014.
2. Participants, representing governments, businesses, thinktanks, scientific communities
and civil societies, as well as students and
young researchers, exchanged their views
on strategies to increase resource productivity, to fight climate change, to decrease the
environmental and social burden of current
consumption and production patterns, and
to achieve a high quality of life for the current and future generations.
3. Strongly committed representatives of stakeholders from many countries, in particular
from Peru, highlighted the need to address
the impact of climate change on agriculture
and food security, as well as other crucial
issues of our society. This should be done
through technical and financial assistance
and through engagement of key stakeholders.
4. New concepts of wealth and prosperity are
emerging. The precautionary principle is
a key concept when defining a safe operating space for socioeconomic activities in all
three dimensions of sustainability. The role
of governments in mitigation and adaptation
actions was emphasised, as was the need for
solid research in order to enable evidence
based policymaking.
5.Participants formulated global, national,
regional and local policy recommendations
(“resource wisdom” for cities) and proposed
strategies for further action and research.
International policies
6. Political and individual power need to be
mobilised to push a wedge between economic growth, resource use and environmental and social impacts (decoupling).Priority
WRF staff: Mathias Schluep
measures include amendments in legislation,
adjustment of financial instruments, promotionofinvestments in technological and social
progress, transparency and accessibility of
information, and encouragementof solidarity.
7. A “ping-pong” between resource productivity
and resource prices, which is to be achieved through fiscal policy, is at the heart of a
smart policy framework, based on systemic
thinking. Decoupling offers opportunities
for leapfrogging, shortcutting and tunneling
through for developing countries.
8. Traditional values and technologies need to
be revived for sustainable use of resources and
safeguardingthe environment as participants
learnedfrom the representatives of indigenous
Peruvian Andean and Amazonian peoples.
9. International organizations (such as UNEP,
UNIDO, World Bank, World Resources
Forum and many others)need to establish closer cooperation in order to alleviate poverty
and to provide opportunities for sustainable
development. Synergies with different national and international organizations working
on similar goals (North-South, South-South)
need to be strengthened. Cooperation between government bodies will foster coordinated and effective interventions. One such
example is the agreement signed between
the Peruvian Ministry of Environment and
the National Council for Science and Technology, during WRF 2014.
Meeting Report 2014 I Page 6
Connecting brilliant ideas to people with
10.Brilliant ideas originate from people who
are dissatisfied, curious, hopeful and open
for change. Connecting innovative ideas to
people with power has a higher chance of
success when not only rational approaches
are used but also when emotions, in particular love, fun and laughter, are also taken into
11.Walking the talk and rethinking the way we
live and work is crucial for both developed
and developing countries. Rich people need
to create space for the poor.
12.The 10–year Framework on Sustainable
Consumption and Production was highlighted as an instrument to achieve tangible and
measurable progress on all levels.
13.Information and education alone do not
guarantee a sustainable life style. Brands and
retailers have the power to influence consumers with product design and marketing.
Governments should encourage initiatives
from civil society instead of undermining.
14.Technical and social science approaches need
to take a more practical solution oriented
approach through early involvement of stakeholders (NGOs, governments, industries).
The launch of the Latin American chapter
of the Global Research Forum on SCP at the
WRF 2014 was welcomed.
Cleaner production, climate change and
circular economy
15.National Cleaner Production Centers have
shown that adopting Resource Efficient and
Cleaner Production (REDCP) strategies goes
hand in hand with creating business value,
generating local employment and addressing
social and gender issues.
16.The need to implement recycling policies
was emphasized, for environmental, social, and health reasons as well as for securing the supply of critical resources,
among which metals that are essential for
renewable energy technologies. The development of sustainable recycling industries needs to be driven by legislation and the
institutionalization of processes. As was
shown by a number of successful projects
in Peru, such as the Chiclayo Limpio project,
recycling begins locally in cooperation with
all relevant stakeholders.
17.Code of practices and Chain-of-Custody
standards for larger small-scale and medium-scale mines and the Fairtrade and Fairmined standard for artisanal and small-scale
mining have been acknowledged as two
appropriate certification schemes in the mining sector.
18.The potential of the ICT industry as well as
full electrification of society were among the
business opportunities presented as new
ways for mitigating climate change. Concepts
and tools discussed include the concept of
circular economy, to be achieved by system
thinking, using tools and concepts such as
life cycle thinking, eco-industrial parks and
zero waste approaches.
19.Sustainable water management including
economic incentives through pricing and
internalizing of externalities was recommended.
Resource policies essential for Climate Change
At WRF 2013 delegates stated that
governments must move rapidly to combine
resource and energy policies, since neither
can be successfully achieve its objectives without close coordination with the other. This
recommendation was supported and further
discussed at WRF 2014.
21.Emissions causing climate change are mostly
associated with the use of fossil fuels. Yet,
little attention is paid to the contribution
of the use of non-energetic resources (e.g.
metals and minerals) towards climate change, although those resources are coupled
to energy use throughout their life cycle
(extraction, manufacturing, consumption,
end-of-life treatment);
Meeting Report 2014 I Page 7
22.Renewable energy technologies (e.g. photovoltaic, solar, electrified mobility) need
to address related material resource supply
risks (e.g. lithium), through resource efficiency, diversification of materials used and
by improving global resource governance.
Measuring progress
23.Performance standards are essential elements
of solid policy packages and should be accessible, fair, credible, and aligned to the economic context.
24.Indicators should be developed and improved for biomass, abiotic materials, water and
land use which can then be differentiated according to regional, temporal and qualitative
Closing and next steps
25.The next World Resources Forum will be
hosted by the Swiss government, in Davos,
Switzerland, on 11–16 October 2015.
26.The Asia-Pacific World Resources Forum will
be hosted by the University of Technology,
Sydney (UTS) and UNSW Australia with support from CSIRO, in Sydney, Australia, on
1–3 June 2015.
27.Participants expressed their great appreciation and gratitude for the warm hospitality of
the Peruvian organizers, the hosting Ministry
of Environment MINAM, as well as the local
community of Arequipa.
H.E.Mariano Castro
H.E. Mariano Castro (left), Damien Giurco (middle), Xaver Edelmann (right)
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 8
1. Photo Gallery
2014 I Page 9
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 10
2. Selected Workshop Highlights
Global Targets for a Sustainable Use
of Natural Resources - Where is a
Safe Operating Space?
Organised by German Federal Environmental
Agency (UBA); Sustainable Europe Research
Institute (SERI)
• Report by Christina Buczko, SERI
Workshop chair: Harry Lehmann, UBA
About 100 WRF participants attended and
contributed to the workshop organized by the
German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) in
cooperation with the Sustainable Europe
Research Institute (SERI).
In his keynote „The feasibility of global resource targets in the areas of land, water and
materials“, Fritz Hinterberger (SERI) presented
preliminary results regarding the definition of
global resource targets which were elaborated
within the international research project „IntRESS –
Exploring Options for Global Resource Use“ for
the German Environment Agency UBA (UBA
research ID: 3712 93 10). IntRESS aims firstly
at the elaboration of scientifically derived suggestions for global resource targets in the three
resource categories materials, water and land,
taking into account the limited ecological
capacities of our planet, as defined amongst
others by the concept of planetary boundaries.
Secondly, policy processes and initiatives for the
implementation of an international resource policy will be examined and discussed.
Internationally accepted, qualitative and quantitative 2050-targets for sustainable resource use
will be derived taking into consideration:
multi-scales and spatial differentiations
direct vs. indirect resource use
absolute vs. relative formulation of targets
temporal differentiations.
Materials include biomass, metal ores, non-metallic minerals and fossil energy resources.
Beyond the above mentioned criteria, the elaboration of targets in this resource category
will take into account the distinction between
extraction and consumption. In order to address
used as well as unused materials, IntRESS experts decided to use Total Material Consumption
(TMC) as a headline indicator. Furthermore, productivity and technology aspects, critical flows
and scarcities, links to land and water as well
as already existing suggestions for thresholds
will be considered. The thresholds for all listed materials are difficult to determine due to
the great heterogeneity and the interrelatedness
of different types of materials. It still has to be
decided, if sub-targets for biotic and abiotic
materials have to be defined. As there are severe knowledge gaps on the environmental impacts produced by some materials, it is crucial
to underline the importance of applying the
precautionary principle.
Friedrich Hinterberger, SERI
In the category of water, the first suggestions
for establishing targets include the use of watershed levels as management levels, the definition of annual targets, thresholds for the ratio
between water appropriation and availability
as well as the inclusion of thresholds for both
water use and consumption on the one hand,
and direct and indirect water appropriation on
the other hand. Considering land, the IntRESS
team is about to develop a new approach to
identify and limit land cover types according to
climatic zones, countries and biodiversity. Tar-
Meeting Report
Report 2013
2014 I Page 11
gets of anthropogentic land use change need to
include natural land cover as a protection zone
and land cover change due to anthropogenic impact. Based upon these initial considerations, indicators for each climate zone can be developed.
Joanna Kámiche Zegarra (Centro de Investigación de la Universidad del Pácifico, CIUP,
Peru) focussed her presentation on water targets. Water resource management is at the top
of the agenda in Peru and whole Latin America,
where access to drinking water and sanitation
is still not guaranteed for some parts of the
population. About 12%of the population, for example, still lacks access to drinking water, with
a huge discrepancy between rural and urban
areas. While in Peruvian urban areas 84% are
connected to the public water net, in rural areas
it is only 33%. Another important aspect is the
unequal distribution of population and water
resources within the country. There is a high
concentration of urban areas and population in
the coastal zones of Peru, which are mostly water
scarce zones. That distribution is also reflected
in water use, as 80% of freshwater resources are
used by agriculture and only 12% by the population. Latin America offers a variety of different
solutions to an improved water management
system, , such as integrated water resources management, sustainable supply and consumption
of water, and treatment and reuse of wastewater.
Enabling factors to achieve these goals in Peru
are an existing legal framework implementing
precautionary principles and the payment of
ecosystem services related to water resources,
a higher awareness of water resource topics in
the population and a certain involvement of the
private sector. Improvements should be made in
the coordination of government levels and in the
access to water in remote areas, among others.
Prof. Dr. María Amélia Enríquez, IRP UNEP
Maria Amélia Enríquez (Deputy Secretary of
Commerce Bureau of Industry and Mining of the
State of Para; member of UNEP Resource Panel,
Brazil) shared perspectives of resource targets in
the context of extractive economies. 13 out of
the 15 largest mineral producing countries of the
world are located in Latin America, where some
of the planet’s richest mineral resource endowments can be found. The mining industry plays
an important socio-economic role in Latin America in terms of share of exports, GDP growth,
income growth and tax collection, among others.
On the one hand, this contribution is crucial to
progress in macroeconomic policies (monetary
and external debt balance) and in social policies
as poverty alleviation. On the other hand, mining
leads to a growing number of social and environmental conflicts. In Peru, agricultural production
and extractive industries do increasingly occur in
the same geographical areas. These conflicts put
limits on the mineral extraction expansion, and
could possibly be prevented by a definition of
„no-entry-zones“ for mining activities in accordance with the people living in these areas. In
addition, an environmental fiscal reform should
be implemented to foster fiscal and environmental benefits and to further reduce poverty.
Johannes Dobinger (UNIDO) spoke about global resource targets in the context of industrial
and economic development.As afundamental aspect he underlined the challenge of decoupling
resource use and environmental impacts from
economic activities. Resource extraction with no
or only low value addition contributes to large
parts of public budgets in developing countries,
which illustrates their dependance on mining
activity. But mining activities also boost environmental conflicts in relation to use of water, land
and materials. Therefore resource productivity
needs to be enhanced to sustain GDP growth.
But resource productivity is not yet recognized
as an opportunity for growth and competitiveness. Industrial policies can be seen as a way
out of resource dependence and overexploitation. To increase resource productivity, local
industrialization of raw materials, integration of
value chains and technology transfer should be
supported. Environmental and social impacts
need to be analysed and local effects have to
be understood. According to Mr. Dobinger, the
resource targets are feasible if political realities
Meeting Report 2013
2014 I Page 12
are taking into account, structural change is supported, several resource targets currently included in SDGs are being taken advantage of and
support from the private sector (including multinational companies) is provided.
Arnold Tukker from the Institute for Environmental Sciences, CML at Leiden University in
the Netherlands provided a more sceptical view
on global resource targets, referring to previous
experiences. He mentioned the establishment of
safe limits in the context of toxic substances in
Europe, stating that they did not significantly
contribute remarkably to solving the problem.
He argued for a differentiated approach to the
question of resource targets. On the one hand,
he underlined the urgent need to reduce the use
of fossil fuels, facing the severe danger of climate
change. On the other hand, from his point of
view there is no need for targets on construction
materials. Furthermore, with regard to water
he stated that the political background of any
ambition for defining targets is more than often
Bruno Oberle from the Swiss Federal Office for
the Environment (FOEN) underlined the several
roles and commitments of the different World
Resources Forum communities, as there are
representatives from science, politics and economy. Within the political world facts tend to
be ignored, and even a solid knowledge basis is
mostly not enough for producing change. At the
same time, politicians are „voted to act“. Numeric targets are not per se useful for inducing
change, but they can be useful for convincing
the public, creating pressure and in a next step
influencing political decision-making.
In the discussion with the audience, the following issues and questions were raised:
• There is a certain risk of specific quantitative tipping points for politicians who are
likely to accept and stay tied to a 5%
increase instead of moving beyond and
promote further advance.
• It will be important to follow resource
related Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs), which will be approved in 2015.
• Considering land and soils, it was suggested
to include quality in terms of productivity.
IntRESS aims at generating global targets
with land cover, striving for strong sustainability with a global focus.
It is crucial to distinguish between use/
consumption and extraction.
Regarding the mining topic, the question
of how sustainable mining could work was
raised. In Europe mining can be realised in
more or less sustainably, as damages mostly
can be repaired in retrospect. Above all this
it depends on the extent of mining projects
and activities. If Brasil provides minerals for
all Europe, this can hardly be achieved in a
sustainable way.
IntRESS started from an ecological point
of view, social and economic aspects of
resource targets will be included into its
future targets framework which will be
elaborated next year. An expert workshop in
spring 2015 will deal with these horizontal
Material exporting countries should be more
aware of the value of their exports and start
a new policy field, not only by increasing resource productivity by a factor 3, but by a
factor 5 to 10.
We have to talk about indicators at the global, the regional and the national level.
2014 I Page 13
Eco Industrial Parks: Taking
Industrial Resource Efficiency and
Sustainable Production to Scale
Showcasing Resource Wisdom in
Organised by the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra
Organised by United Nations Industrial
Development Organisation (UNIDO); Governments
of Switzerland and Peru; Resource Efficient and
Cleaner Production Network (RECPnet)
• Report by Jukka Noponen, Sitra
• Report byMarcos Alegre,Centre for Eco-effi-
The aim of the workshop was to showcase and
discuss practical approaches to increase resource
wisdom in cities around the world. Resource
wisdom is shown to strengthen regional economy, generate new jobs and decrease carbon
emissions. Resource wisdom is more than using
resources efficiently; it is over-arching resource
management with set of tools and experimental
cieny and Social Responsibility of Peru (CER)
Workshop chair: René Van Berkel, UNIDO
The transition towards a low carbon industry
starts with the efficient use of all natural resources in products, industrial processes and global
value chains. Despite praiseworthy decoupling
achievements in selected companies, it is urgent to scale up and speed up such initiatives.
Industrial parks offer an avenue to combine and
synergize between different scales of resource efficiency, respectively at process level, within factories, among factories co-located in industrial
zones, in value chains and by exchanges with
surrounding areas (including cities). Moreover,
eco industrial parks are a key instrument for industrial policy.
In order to ensure that eco- industrial parks
foster inclusive and sustainable industrialization it is imperative that environment, resource
conservation and sustainability considerations are being mainstreamed in the planning,
construction, operation and management of
industrial parks. Concepts and practices of ecoparks should be used to adequate existing industrial zones in order to improve environmental
performance and enterprises competitiveness.
René Van Berkel, UNIDO
Workshop chair: Jukka Noponen, Sitra and Xaver
Edelmann, World Resources Forum (WRF)
• Antti Lippo, Specialist, the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra
• Dr. Pirkko Korhonen, Project Director, City
of Jyväskylä
• Dr. Ton Bastein, Program Manager Resource Efficiency & Circular Economy, TNO,
Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research
• Dr. Donna D. Rubinoff, Consultant & Former Senior Advisor Sustainable Urbanization City of Kigali, Rwanda
• Luis Neves, Group Sustainability & Climate
Change Officer, Deutsche Telekom AG
Chairman of GeSI, the Global e-Sustainability Initiative
Resource Efficiency Program for Cities
Antti Lippo, Sitra
Resource efficiency program for cities is an
over-arching frameworkforlargeand middle-sized
cities that encompasses climate, environment
and resource efficiency policies as a modular
programme. The programme is a holistic framework, which aims to leverage cities capabilities
to reduce ecological footprint, greenhouse gas
emissions and material consumption, while boosting local economies and wellbeing. Resource
efficiency programme for cities (“RE-PRO”) has
been developed in a 2,5 years joint-project called
“Towards resource wisdom” together with Sitra
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 14
and the city of Jyväskylä. RE-PRO is a modular
programme, aiming for three long-term targets:
ecological footprint on a sustainable one-planet
level - zero waste - and zero greenhouse gas
The path towards a resource wise city begins
with baseline assessment on current policies
and measures, leading to long-term road-mapping, followed by implementation – that consists
of the city’s own internal measures and external
operations, initiated together with local stakeholders. Cities applying RE-PRO are obliged to
setup cross-departmental task groups, in addition to naming coordinators who operate as chief
resource efficiency officers within the city and in
extended national cooperation.
All cities joining the RE-PRO will be granted
the membership in forerunner cities network
that receives support from the National Service
Centre, which is the second outcome of the project. Cities have emphasized the demand for
peer-to-peer network, where information and
knowledge on best practices and latest knowhow can be exchanged. It seems utterly important
for cities to benchmark each other, in order
the find out for example why the generation of
household waste is lower in some cities than the
national average. The forerunner cities will also
be granted the network logo in order to boost the
appreciation and awareness of the forerunner
cities in national media.The progress and execution of the roadmap, and the development of key
indicators is also monitored and reported. Traditionally, upon cities’ environmental management
systems, monitoring and reporting is targeted
only internally. This does not give enough pressure to execute what has been agreed in different
policies and strategies. In Sitra’s framework, it is
an obligation to monitor and report annually the
progress of the roadmap to the national service
centre, but also via publicly available webpage.
The reporting includes the main activities, in addition to key resource efficiency indicators. This
also enables the benchmarking between different
cities. The chosen key indicators are: greenhouse
gas emission, waste flows, ecological footprint
(Global Footprinting Model), bio capacity (gha)
and quality of life (WHOQOL-9). Sitra believes
this approach provides a harmonized and common
method for cities to enhance design and development within one-planet boundaries, and alleviates the pressure for cities’ to struggle alone on
this journey. During the “Towards resource wisdom” Sitra and city of Jyväskylä have executed
several practical experiments and created prototypes of scalable sustainable solutions. Culture
of experimenting is a great opportunity to introduce new forms of stakeholder participation and
promote subsidiarity in society. Collecting ideas
for sustainable solutions directly from local residents and engaging them in implementation has
also provided acceptance from the local communities for advancing resource wisdom and
sustainable development – an issue that is often
difficult to achieve. Culture of experimenting related to design-thinking (as seen often in product development and manufacturing), where
development is an iterative process; create a prototype, test and develop it before you introduce
it to the markets.
In the beginning of the project, residents left
over 200 ideas, of which 15 were executed in
1–4 weeklong pilots with a minimal budget. The
most successful prototype has been the model
for selling leftover lunch in schools for near-by
residents. This prototype was launched in one
school in Jyväskylä, and has now been scaled up
to 20 different Finnish cities.
Dr. Pirkko Korhonen,
Impacts of Resource Wisdom on Regional Economies, Employment and Emissions – Practical Experiments
Dr. Pirkko Korhonen, City of Jyväskylä
Dr. Korhonen presented a city’s views in developing a resource wise city, and reflected hands-on
experiences fromthe“Towards resource wisdom”
project. Thecityof Jyväskylä has aimed to enable
thecity to work as a test-bed for new solutions.
These include the development of a former paper
mill into a sustainable and attractive area to live
and work.The design of the area was done together in a co-creation model with future residents and different stakeholders.
2014 I Page 15
Dr. Korhonen sees culture of experiments as a
tool for strategic development and as an enabler for boosting commitment to start acting more
sustainably. Further analysis of the executed
prototypes and their scale-up has shown remarkable impacts for local economy, job creation
and emission reductions. Without the experiments and 25,000 participating residents the
(sustainable) change would be much more difficult on the city level and within decision-makers.
ved resource and material efficiency.
These measures often require investments, and
hence we can ask the question whether society is
willing to pay the investments, especially when
we are lacking the robust symbols of circular
economy. Ton Bastein emphasized that the needed change is possible when business sense is
achieved. Additionally, the change is easier if we
can link the concept of circular economy with
improved wealth and wellbeing.
Resource Wisdom in Urban Systems – Urban Metabolism – from Awareness to Analysis to Action
Dr. Ton Bastein, TNO
Improving resource wisdom requires actions
both on national and on local level. National
policies need strong drivers advancing circular
economy, which enable new business models,
create knowledge on material flows (“urban
metabolism”) and advance opportunities for
resource efficient production and consumption.
The drivers at local level to pursue resource wisdom and a circular economy are at least partly
considered as catalytic investment to the reputation of the city attracting innovative business
and newcomers. Changes on national policy
level can get leverage from the awareness created by environmental disasters or from robust
symbols representing sustainability and circular
economy. In the Netherlands, unmanageable
landfills and events of polluted ground have
been strong drivers for advancing environmental
legislation and Dutch waste policies. Currently,
the challenges lie on improving the concept of
circular economy without such robust symbols
showcasing what circular economy is in practice.
Circular economy is believed to bring jobs and
to improve security of supply, but these are not
necessarily strong enough symbols for political
breakthrough! To be able to prioritize actions
on a local level, it is important to understand
the urban metabolism, which gives insight on
the material flows within entire areas, cities or
neighbourhoods. This approach delivers rough
estimates to inspire urban policy, urban design
and industrial engineering. It also provides insight on the environmental footprint of different
activities and industry sectors, and leverages the
knowledge to detect the cost-efficient measures
to reduce the harmful impacts on environment,
or the opportunities to add value around impro-
Dr. Donna D. Rubinoff
Victory of Vision and Leadership - Challenges of
Implementation, Sustainable Urbanism in Terms of
Resource Management in Kigali
Dr. Donna D. Rubinoff, Consultant
Dr. Rubinoff shared her experience with designing and implementing the master plan for city
of Kigali, Rwanda. Kigali has undergone drastic
development since 1990s sad history, and currently is a flagship of Africa with its one million
population focusing on sustainable urban planning and economic development. According to
Dr. Rubinoff, the Kigali master plan case provides key lessons for other growing cities in
developing countries. Vision and strong leadership are both necessary in urban development,
but not sufficient alone. Vision must filter to implementation at all levels through institutions or
actions. Sometimes you need to stimulate vision
in creative ways and occasionally you need to
set the stage and wait for vision to catch up.
Determined city development often requires the
urgency to change, but it can also be a block of
change, if institutions are weak. To avoid disconnect between these two factors, cities should
make sure the structures around planning can
implement changes and are agile enough. If this
is not the case, then you just have to build structures and wait for connections.
When converting a conventional city into
something completely new, it should
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 16
acknowledged that innovations must be still situated in the local cultural context. Local and cultural
meanings must drive change, not only the
abstract westernized planning principles or
scientific agenda. In order to build political will
and civic understanding of the options, demonstrations are also needed, but so is exposure to
real examples.
Resource Intelligent City – Information and
Knowledge Sharing to Help Resource Management
Luis Neves, Deutsche Telekom AG /GeSI
Luis Neves introduced ICT’s possibilities in carbon emission reduction and resource efficiency.
ICT was seen a core tool and infrastructure for
cross-sector resource management. A number of
policies are needed to harness its reduction potential and to support the rollout and large-scale
deployment of ICT-based solutions in urban resource wisdom:
• Investment in broadband infrastructure
• Cross-sector collaboration between the ICT
sector and the transport, buildings and
energy sectors
• Green public procurement integrating resource efficiency criteria in public tenders
• Investment in R&D and support to innovative
technology pilots
• Increasing users’ awareness of ICT-based solutions to help facilitate behavioural change
Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI) had
analyzed and researched the ICT sector carbon
footprint and opportunities for global reductions.
According to Smarter 2020 study, the sector will
account for 2,3% of total global emissions, but
simultaneously if ICT would be applied in society in accordance with its potential, it can enable
16,5% of CO2 emission reductions of the total
expected global CO2 emissions by 2020 that is
7 times more than the total Industry footprint.
GeSI‘s Workshop presentation
The speakers´ team summed up the discussion
in the following four main points, which aim to
foster resource wisdom in cities.
Show leadership
• Leadership has to be visible. We have to
show it in all and everything: governance,
industry sectors, cities, individuals, and for
instance in public procurement.
• It is necessary to showcase systemic changes
and make robust symbols - grey to green/
landfill to park/industrial zone for housing
- visible. It is important to show people that
positive changes are possible and we have
done them in history.
Learn by doing
• Experimenting and creating of experimental
culture was one of the tools to find new ways
to do and get real and fast commitment for
cultural and behavioural changes. Design
thinking shortens development processes.
Design is part of experiments.
• Invest in knowledge & quantification. To be
able to make right choices and decisions we
have to understand what works, and gives
scalable results.
• From small-scale solutions to large-scale visions – the session highlighted specially opportunities in cities.
Bring people together
• Education is the key for better future and the
change. Cross-sector collaboration and system thinking break barriers and open paths
for innovation and understanding cities as
• We have to respect context of reality and
cultures to be able to build commitment and
Make the systemic change happen
• It is important that well managed experiments and showcases in cities lead to legislative changes and institutionalization
Fundamental behavioural change
• Knowledge sharing and breakthroughs of
information society that enable resource
wisdom and circular economy require information infrastructure.
2014 I Page 17
Sustainable Recycling Industries
for Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (WEEE) in Latin American
Workshop held in Spanish
Organised by Sustainable Recycling Industries
(SRI), UNIDO, Swiss State Secretariat at Economic
Affairs (SECO), Institute for Materials Science &
Technology (Empa), WRF and ecoinvent
• Report by Oscar Espinoza, IPES
Workshop chair: Oscar Espinoza, IPES and Mathias
Schluep, WRF
En coordinación entre SRI (Mathias Schluep),
EMPA (Heinz Boeni), ONUDI (Alfredo Cueva) e
IPES (Oscar Espinoza) se realizó el diseño y posterior organización del Taller RAEE como parte
de las actividades técnicas del Foro Mundial de
Recursos (WRF 2014).
En los últimos años, el manejo de los RAEE está
considerado como una prioridad dentro de las
agendas de muchos países latinoamericanos.
Debido a iniciativas gubernamentales, a la industria, a organizaciones bilaterales y multilaterales, han ocurrido avances significativos en
este campo, que varían de acuerdo a la región.
Por este motivo, en un proceso interactivo de
múltiples actores, se abordó la necesidad de armonizar el tema a nivel regional. El resultado
fue documentado como “Lineamientos para la
gestión de los RAEE en Latinoamérica”. Este
taller se encargará de retomar dicho proceso, discutir el estado del manejo actual de los RAEE en
Latinoamérica e identificar estrategias para una
mayor armonización regional.
• Conocer la situación actual del manejo de los
RAEE en el mundo y en Latinoamérica
• Conocer los avances de Colombia y Perú en
la implementación de Regulación RAEE
• Gestión ambientalmente racional de los
COPs contenidos en los RAEE
• Compartir y analizar casos exitosos de
gestión de los RAEE
Desarrollo del Taller
Mariano Castro, de MINAM, resaltó la
importancia de la implementación de la gestión
y manejo de RAEE en el Perú por tratarse de
una iniciativa exitosa basada en responsabilidad
extendida del productor (REP). Olivier Bovet,
de SECO, indicó que para la Cooperación Suiza
el manejo de los RAEE en países como Perú y
Colombia eran una muestra efectiva de aprendizajes y desarrollo de capacidades locales que
están permitiendo avanzar hacia la minería urbana. Johannes Dobinger, de ONUDI, indicó que
desde Naciones Unidas se tiene la preocupación
de fortalecer la gestión de los RAcon una mirada
de los contaminantes que tiene y desarrollando
también una economía verde.
Bloque 1 - RAEE en el mundo y en Latinoamérica
EMPA - Heinz Böni - Estado global en el manejo
de los RAEE
Señaló que existe gran diferencia entre los países del Sur y Norte, respecto a la generación
de RAEE, que va de 7 a 29.8 kg/persona/año.
Además que gran parte de las extracciones de la
minería primaria son destinados a los aparatos
eléctricos y electrónicos.
EMPA, a través de sus proyectos, promueve:
• Recolección eficiente y separada para la recuperación de recursos.
• Implementar la responsabilidad extendida
del productor (REP) e integrar y/o formalizar
a los informales, y el financiamiento de estos
• Como mirada hacia el futuro se tiene la
implementación de la REP, el reciclaje sostenible, incrementar tasas de recolección y
estándares técnicos.
Meeting Report 2013
2014 I Page 18
Consultor ONUDI – Daniel Ott - La Gestión de los
RAEE en Latinoamérica
Se mencionó sobre la situación de Latinoamérica
respecto a aspectos normativos (tipos, alcance,
categorías RAEE y metas de implementación).
También se identificaron los manuales y normas
técnicas. Se ubicaron las plantas existentes de
tratamiento y reciclaje de RAEE.
Por último se identificaron los proyectos de
manejo de RAEE y sus fuentes de cooperación.
En las conclusiones se mencionó que se tienen
avances considerables en países como Colombia,
Perú, Costa Rica, y México. La fuerza motriz de
estos avances es la normatividad, la misma que
tiene influencia europea.
Plataforma RELAC – Uca Silva - Plataforma RELAC
Funciona desde el 2004, y promueve la investigación, el desarrollo de capacidades y la gestión
comunicacional. El principal aporte de RELAC
consistió en el trabajo participativo para el
desarrollo de los “Lineamientos de Gestión de
RAEE en LAC” trabajado con actores públicos
y privados y en los que se determina las principales definiciones y aspectos de la gestión y
manejo de RAEE.
normas técnicas y manejo de RAEE del estado
orientado al correcto tratamiento (acopio, transporte, desmantelamiento, descontaminación,
aprovechamiento y disposición final de componentes peligrosos). Se ha logrado un proceso de
institucionalización y de fortalecimiento de empresas operadoras de RAEE (pre procesamiento).
CNPML, Colombia – Carlos Hernández - Gestión de
RAEE en Colombia
Con apoyo de la Cooperación Suiza, desde el
2008, se ha trabajado un conjunto de diagnósticos y planes que han aterrizado en un marco
legal basado en resoluciones (2010) y una Ley
(2013) en la que los RAEE son regulados bajo el
principio de REP. Se cuenta con metas obligatorias que las empresas productoras las cumplen
de manera individual y principalmente colectiva.
Se cuenta con un Comité Nacional donde se tratan sobre registros de productores, estándares
técnicos, sistemas de información, etc.
IPES, Perú – Oscar Espinoza - Avances en la
Gestión y Manejo de RAEE en Perú
Los RAEE son el tipo de residuos de mayor crecimiento y complejidad respecto a su composición.
Como en cualquier país, el manejo informal de
los RAEE ocasiona serios problemas ambientales
y a la salud en Perú. Con apoyo de la Cooperación Suiza, desde el 2009, se ha logrado desarrollar un marco regulatorio basado en REP,
Uca Silva, Plataforma RELAC
Daniel Ott, Consultor ONUDI
Bloque 2 - Gestión ambiental de los COP en los
WRF / SRI Programme – Mathias Schluep - Presencia de COPs en los RAEE
Presentación de la definición de los componentes orgánicos persistentes (COP´s) donde resaltan los Policloruros Bifenilos (PCB´s) de los
condensadores y capacitores. Así como también
los retardantes de llamas en sus diversas formas. Los COP´s son boiacumulables ya que no
se degradan y persisten en las cadenas tróficas
Existen regulaciones (Directiva RoHS) en la
Unión Europea en la que se colocan límites en
las concentraciones de los COP´s para el ingreso
2014 I Page 19
de equipos eléctricos y electrónicos.Se ilustró
también que la quema informal de plásticos de
los RAEE genera emisiones de dioxinas.
ONUDI – Alfredo Cueva // Enfoque de ONUDI para
inclusión de COPs en la gestión de RAEE
ONUDI promueve el planteamiento del enfoque de Desarrollo Industrial Incluyente y Sostenible (ISID) dentro del cual se promueven las
industrias verdes.
Las industrias verdes consisten en un modelo
que desacopla el crecimiento económico del
consumo irracional de recursos y la afectación
ambiental. Lo que se quiere es el uso racional de
los recursos, generación de empleo de calidad y
estar en equilibrio con el ambiente. Los proyectos RAEE de ONUDI deben contribuir a erradicar
la pobreza, al desarrollo de industrias verdes y
a implementar convenios internacionales como
los de Estocolmo (COPs), Minamata (Hg), Basilea, SAICM, entre otros. ONUDI tiene proyectos
RAEE en ejecución y en elaboración en África,
Asia y Latinoamérica.
El proyecto RAEE en LAC consiste de acciones
“a la medida» para cada país y un componente
regional común a todos. Las acciones se basan
en un «menú preestablecido,» ajustados a su situación respecto de las políticas y las instalaciones
disponibles para desmantelamiento / reciclaje.
Bloque 3 – Discusión de casos exitosos en gestión
y manejo de RAEE
Caso exitoso 1: SBN – Aldo Muñoz - Manejo de
RAEE en el Sector Público de Perú
La Superintendencia Nacional de Bienes Estatales (SBN) es la responsable de normar los actos
de adquisición, disposición, administración y
supervisión de los bienes estatales (muebles e
inmuebles). Existe un mandato de MINAM y la
SBN de coordinar el manejo adecuado de los
RAEE del sector público a través de operadores RAEE especializados. En mayo 2013 la SBN
emitió la Directiva de Baja y Donación de RAEE
cuyo objetivo es gestionar los RAEE del estado
evitando impactos al ambiente y a la salud.
El alcance de la Directiva RAEE es nacional y
en menos de 16 meses ya se han manejado más
de 400 Toneladas de RAEE por 80 instituciones
públicas con 5 operadores RAEE. Resultado de
esta Directiva ya no se encuentran RAEE del
estado en zonas informales.
Caso exitoso 2: CNPML – Carlos Hernández Sistemas Colectivos de RAEE en Colombia
ECOCOMPUTO es una unidad de cumplimiento
o sistema colectivo de productores organizados
(fabricantes, importadores y retail) con la participación del gremio empresarial ANDI. Este
sistema colectivo organiza la recolección y tratamiento de RAEE de computadores y periféricos.
Cuenta con 64 empresas y está operativa desde
enero del 2012. Tiene cobertura nacional y a la
fecha ha recogido más de 3,000 toneladas de
RAEE cumpliendo las metas obligatorias.
Desarrolla campañas de concientización e implementa puntos de acopio en campañas itinerantes.
Caso exitoso 3: Operadores RAEE - Fortalecimiento
de operadores RAEE de Perú
El primer aspecto de fortalecimiento que han
expuesto los operadores de RAEE de Perú es el
incremento constante de RAEE que llegan a sus
plantas. Esto se debe al incremento de RAEE que
proviene de generadores del sector público y privado así como también de empresas de marca.
Consecuencia de lo anterior se ha incrementado
el empleo 100% formal y en condiciones adecuadas al interior de las empresas.
Se cuenta con mejoras en la infraestructura y
equipos para el desmantelamiento, compactación y transporte de los RAEE. También se ha
mejorado los procesos internos con su respectivo
registro y trazabilidad.
Luego de la exposición de los 3 casos exitosos se
tuvo la participación de expertos:
Daniel Ott, de RLGA, manifestó que la
experiencia de la SBN al promover el buen manejo de los RAEE del estado era novedosa y
efectiva a nivel regional. Reconoció que Perú
y Colombia tienen el mayor avance en Latinoamérica y que los operadores de RAEE están
mejorando constantemente.
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 20
Michiel Van der Voort, de UMICORE, reconoció
también los buenos avances en Perú y Colombia y que los operadores de RAEE estaban realizando muchas mejoras.
Raúl Roca, de MINAM, resaltó la importancia de
contar con un marco legal claro, basado en REP
y que los procesos participativos e inclusivos
generan mejores resultados.
Cecilia Rosell, de la SNI de Perú, realizó comentarios de índole tributario peruano.
Participantes al taller RAEE
El taller “Industrias de reciclaje sostenible para
RAEE en los países de Latinoamérica” se llevó
a cabo el martes 21 de octubre de 09:00 a 13:00
horas y contó con una participación registrada
de 128 personas:
• Género: Participantes mujeres: 76 (59%) y
participantes hombres: 52 (41%)
• Ubicación: Participantes de Arequipa: 64
(50%) y de Lima, provincias y el extranjero:
64 (50%).
• Institución: Empresa privada: 15 (12%); Cooperación técnica: 17 (13%); Sector público:
24 (19%); Universidades: 72 (56%).
• 41 de los 128 participantes tenían relación
directa con el tema de RAEE.
Workshop presentations
Conclusiones del Taller RAEE
• El manejo y aprovechamiento informal de los
RAEE afecta el ambiente y la salud en todo el
• La creciente generación de RAEE y su complejidad requiere regulaciones REP donde se
involucren todos.
• Los países con normativa REP para los RAEE
son los de mayor avance en LAC (Colombia
y Perú).
• Existe poco conocimiento de los POPs y otros
contaminantes contenidos en los RAEE.
• GEF-UNIDO trabajará un proyecto sobre
COPs contenidos en los RAEE en 14 países
de Latinoamérica.
• 100% de RAEE del estado peruano se maneja
• El volumen de tratamiento formal de RAEE
crece y ocasiona ampliaciones y nuevas inversiones.
• Los sistemas colectivos de productores de
Colombia son un ejemplo de cumplimiento
de metas.
• Trabajo participativo es efectivo y sinérgico.
2014 I Page 21
Zero Waste Approach to Managing
Responsible Gold Mining
Organised by Zero Waste International Alliance
Organised by the Better Gold Initiative (BGI), SECO,
Ministry of Environment of Peru (MINAM)
Workshop held in Spanish
• Report by Richard Anthony, Zero Waste
• Report by Guillermo Medina Cruz (BGI)
Workshop chair: Richard Anthony, Zerlo Waste
Workshop chair: Guillermo Medina Cruz (BGI)
This four-hour workshop covered:
• The Zero Waste Approach
• Organics as a commodity stream in San
• Collective take back programs in San Luis
• Zero Waste planned actions in Oceanside
• Richard Anthony
• Ana Lúcia de Carvalho
• William Worrell
• Colleen Foster
With over 250 participants attending the «Zero
Waste» workshop at the World Resources Forum
in Peru, the Zero Waste model, simply became
one of the most engaging and diverse dialogues
for the conference that summarized the global
need to tackle climate change and resource limitation through tangible community based
programs that foster the highest and best use of
resources across our planet.
The Zero Waste model is a process that is not
defined by its end results, but rather is founded on the principle of designing and managing
products and processes to systematically avoid
and eliminate the volume and toxicity of waste
and materials, while actively conserving and recovering all resources. Zero Waste programs as
detailed at the Forum, are the fastest and most
cost effective way for both large urban and small
rural governments to contribute to reducing climate change, to protect human health, create
green jobs, and promote local sustainability.
Key programs to be modelled across any Country, State, or City should include greater community responsibility that addresses irresponsible
consumption and disposal, food security versus
wasted food, political responsibility, corporate
responsibility, and cradle-to-cradle design.
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 22
Transitioning toward Circular Economy through the Application of
Closed Looped Cycle Production:
Methods and Principles
Workshop held in Spanish
Organised by Department of Sustainable Development (DSD), Executive Secretariat for Integral Development of the Organization of American States
• Report by the Closed Looped Cycle Production
in the Americas Program of the OAS, Department of Sustainable Development
Workshop chair: Kevin de Cuba, OAS/DSD
El 20, 21 y 22 de octubre la ciudad de Arequipa
fue sede del Foro Mundial de Recursos 2014, el
cual acogióamásde 1,000 personas entre tomadores de decisiones, investigadores, empresarios,
estudiantes, y sociedad civil en general, quienes se reunieron para, en palabras del Sr. Bas
de Leeuw, Director Ejecutivo del Foro Mundial
de Recursos, “conectar ideas brillantes con tomadores de decisiones”. El gran reto que asumió
este foro es cómo desacoplar nuestras economías
del agotamiento de recursos y la degradación de
ecosistemas, así como de la generación de emisiones y altos niveles de contaminación.
En este contexto el Departamento de Desarrollo
Sostenible de la Organización de los Estados
Americanos (OEA) estuvo presente con dos
sesiones bajo el taller titulado “La Transición
hacia la Economía Circular a través de la aplicación de Producción en Ciclo Cerrado”, en el cual
se abordaron los principios y metodologías de
producción en ciclo cerrado y se compartieron
las lecciones aprendidas de las Américas. De esta
manera se reafirmó el compromiso de la OEA
con las prácticas innovadoras de producción sostenible que pueden facilitar la transición a una
economía circular y sostenible a lo largo de las
Américas. El enfoque del taller estaba dirigido a
contestar la pregunta: ¿Cómo las PYMEs pueden
innovar y adoptar un nuevo modelo de negocio?
La implementación del Programa de Producción
en Ciclo Cerrado es un ejemplo claro y concreto
de cómo cerrar el círculo de flujo de materiales y
como puede ser una solución sostenible y rentable para las PYMEs en las Américas.
Día 1 (21 de octubre de 2014) - La inauguración
del primer día del taller “La Transición hacia la
Economía Circular a través de la aplicación de
Producción en Ciclo Cerrado: principios y metodologías” estuvo a cargo del Sr. Kevin de Cuba,
Gerente del Programa de Producción en Ciclo
Cerrado en las Americas (OEA) y contó con la
participación del Sr. Pablo Zuñiga, representante
de la OEA en el Perú, quien resaltó que, en un
contexto en donde el crecimiento económico
esta tradicionalmente acoplado con la creciente
demanda de energía, agua y recursos naturales,
existe una urgente necesidad de repensar la manera en que los bienes son manufacturados. El
modelo de negocio que propone el enfoque de
“Cradle-to-Cradle” (de la cuna a la cuna), promovido en la iniciativa de Producción en Ciclo
Cerrado, permite desacoplar el crecimiento
económico de la explotación insostenible de recursos. Es así que el objetivo de este programa
es incrementar la conciencia, el conocimiento y
las capacidades en torno a mecanismos y diseño
de producción sostenible.
Unos de los ejes de reflexión del primer día del
taller, fue la diferencia y complementariedad de
los conceptos de ecoeficiencia y ecoefectividad.
Se contó con la presencia del Sr. Marcos Alegre,
Director Ejecutivo del Centro de Ecoeficiencia
y Responsabilidad social de Peru (CER) quien
compartió sus reflexiones y aproximaciones al
concepto de “ecoeficiencia”. Algunos puntos claves que resaltó fueron que este concepto tiene
distintas matices en su aplicación en la industria,
desde quienes le ponen más énfasis al análisis de
ciclo de vida hasta quienes le ponen énfasis en
la eficiencia del uso de materiales, o incluso las
empresas que generan relaciones de simbiosis
entre ellas: por ejemplo los ecoparques.
Workshop participants
2014 I Page 23
De otro lado, se contó con la participación del
Sr. Ken Alston, CEO de McDonough Braungart
Design Chemistry (MBDC) de los Estados Unidos,
que puso en agenda el concepto de “ecoefectividad” como el siguiente paso a la ecoeficiencia. El
principal problema con el paradigma de la “cuna
a la tumba” es el flujo linear de los materiales
que pasan de insumos a producto y finalmente a
desperdicios. Todo se reduce a la elección de los
materiales que usamos en los productos, según
suspalabras,ala “química de los materiales”. Para
ser ecoefectivos necesitamos pensar en cuales
son los materiales adecuados, cuál es el diseño
adecuado y luego preguntarnos cómo podemos
hacer ese proceso de producción más eficiente.
En otras palabras, la innovación tiene que ir más
allá de los parámetros de la regulación, el diseño
tiene que ser tan inteligente que no se necesite
regulación. La idea detrás del enfoque de Cradleto-Cradle es imitar, en la medida de lo posible, la
forma en la cual la naturaleza opera, el círculo
virtuoso de reutilización.
Representando al programa de Producción de
Ciclo Cerrado, estuvo el Sr. Rubén Contreras,
Asesor Técnico Principal del Programa de Producción en Ciclo Cerrado en las Americas (OEA),
que sumó a la reflexión aportando que la ecoeficiencia es un paso importante, pero que necesitamos un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo hacia
la ecoefectividad.
Rubén compartió, además, que el programa se
inspiró en el enfoque de Cradle-to-Cradle, y a
partir de este enfoque se pensó como impulsar
este modelo, reconociendo su potencial, especialmente en las PYMEs, así como sus diferencias
aplicativas. “La OEA apostó por esta iniciativa
porque cuando hablamos de democracia, de
desarrollo económico integral y sostenible, nos
damos cuenta de que los recursos de cada país
son esenciales para mantener su estabilidad”
acotó. De esta manera, dejo en claro que el rol
del Departamento de Desarrollo Sostenible es
funcionar como puente entre una tecnología o
nuevo paradigma y la gente que diseña los marcos regulatorios en los países de las Américas. El
objetivo puntual del programa, enfatizó Ruben,
es hacer más ecoefectivas, sostenibles y competitivas a las pequeñas y medianas empresas de las
Américas, las cuales son el sostén económico de
la región. La producción en ciclo cerrado, puede
tomarse precisamente como una estrategia en el
Workshop OEA
modelo de negocios para, desde un punto de
vista económico, ser más competitivos y acceder
a nuevos mercados.
Después de estas reflexiones se abrió el panel a
las preguntas del público presente. Los puntos
resaltantes y las conclusiones del primer día en
plenaria fueron lo siguiente:
Se reafirmó el consenso sobre la
diferenciación y complementariedad de los
enfoques de ecoeficiencia y ecoefectividad.
De un lado, la ecoeficiencia está asociada
a una producción más limpia en el que se
busca ser eficientes en el uso de recursos
durante el proceso de manufacturación; del
otro lado la ecoefectividad está vinculada a
una producción sostenible y a una economía
circular, en donde se cierre el flujo de materiales en la producción, lo cual implica
pensar desde el diseño y la química de los
materiales cómo incorporar ciclos biológicos
de materiales o como pensar en reutilizar los
materiales no biológicos en ciclos técnicos de
otros productos.
(2) Se reflexionó sobre cuál debe ser el orden
de incorporación de la ecoeficiencia y ecoefectividad en las empresas. Se concluyó que
ser ecoeficientes no es suficiente, pero es
necesario. Que la ecoefectividad es una apuesta a largo plazo que debe ir trabajándose
de manera gradual, y que en esa dinámica
la ecoeficiencia debe acompañar de manera
paralela a los procesos de la industria para
minimizar sus impactos. Sin embargo, hay
ciertas industrias, que por su naturaleza,
tendrían que descartar todo, la actividad
misma y repensar completamente su modelo
de negocios desde el diseño de sus productos
y la elección de sus materiales, para convertir se más competitivos y sostenibles.
(3) Finalmente se reflexionó sobre de qué manera la Producción en Ciclo Cerrado contribuye a un enfoque de Desarrollo Sostenible.
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 24
Se concluyó que el programa PPCA contribuye en aspectos sociales, ambientales y
económicos. Por un lado, responde a la necesidad de crear una base de capacidad en nuestra región para hacerle frente a los nuevos
mercados y no quedarnos enfrascados en un
modelo económico basado en la extracción
de nuestras materias primas. Por otro lado,
plantea la necesidad de invertir en investigación y educación bajo principios de sostenibilidad y una mirada a largo plazo, así
como la oportunidad de convertirnos en desarrolladores de tecnología que nos permita
competir en el mercado global.
Día 2 (22 de octubre de 2014) - El 2do día del
taller titulado “La Transición hacia la Economía
Circular a través de la aplicación de Producción
en Ciclo Cerrado: lecciones aprendidas de las
Américas” buscó presentar a este enfoque de
producción en ciclo cerrado como una oportunidad para las PYMES a través de casos concretos
y tangibles en los países, a partir de la experiencia generada por la OEA en Ecuador, Colombia,
Panama y Trinidad y Tobago.
En sus palabras de bienvenida, Aída Figari, Jefa
de Proyectos de la consultora peruana Libélula
y miembro de la Secretaría de la Plataforma
Regional LEDS LAC, abordó la importancia de
aplicar métodos y conceptos de producción en
ciclo cerrado para lograr el desarrollo con bajas
emisiones en el sector industrial de la región.
La parte técnica estuvo a cargo de Gloria
Restrepo del Centro Nacional de Producción
Más Limpia de Colombia (CNPML) y compartió
con la audiencia algunos hallazgos de estudios
técnicos realizados en Colombia y Trinidad y
Durante su intervención, Rubén Contreras (OEA)
destacó que la introducción de este proyecto en
Ecuador marcó un hito para despertar intereses
en otros países. El primer reto era obtener una
base de datos adecuados sobre el material de
un empaque para analizar los componentes del
producto y ver cómo podíamos hacerlo menos
tóxico. Cuando empezamos a pensar en los
materiales del empaque, los tintes por ejemplo
venían de distintos países y el problema era que
teníamos que acceder a la información sobre el
contenido de esos tintes. Las empresas normalmente quieren mantener confidencialidad con
sus materiales. Sin embargo, se logró obtener el
perfil del producto hacia un nivel de 100 partes
por millón (100ppm).A partir de esta experiencia
nos dimos cuenta de la existencia de un nuevo
nicho de mercado. Nos dimos cuenta la necesidad de una base de datos, con la que podamos conocer los componentes de un producto
y cuáles podemos reemplazar sin tener que remontarnos a las compañías y sus acuerdos de
confidencialidad. De otro lado, otro desafío para
el proyecto era capacitar a los expertos de Ecuador para que entendieran el concepto y viabilidad de la producción en ciclo cerrado. Tuvimos
muchas reuniones técnicas con el ministerio de
la industria y producción con lo que se demostró
que es posible trabajar de manera intersectorial.
Otro logro del proyecto en Ecuador es la certificación de Cradle-to-Cradle de los empaques que
manufactura Batery Alimentos S.A. Con esto
el piloto se demostró que sí se puede lograr un
estándar en la región a través de una certificación. Es así que a partir de esta primera experiencia se consiguió atraer el interés de 3 países
para trabajar este tema en Colombia, Panamá,
Trinidad y Tobago, cuyas experiencias se compartieron en el taller.
Este segundo día de taller, contó con la participación de la Sra. Lourdes Fernández, Gerente de
Investigación y Proyectos del Centro de Ecoeficiencia y Responsabilidad Social de Perú (CER),
quien reflexionó sobre la factibilidad de implementar la producción de ciclo cerrada en el Perú.
quien reflexionó sobre la factibilidad de implementar la producción de ciclo cerrada en el Perú.
Lourdes resaltó el potencial de trabajar con
PYMEs en el desarrollo de negocios basados
en economía circular. Las PYMES en el Perú
representan el 95% de todas las empresas y el
49% del PBI. De otro lado, Perú es un país con
crecimiento económico pero con uso intensivo
de recursos naturales. Este es un contexto en el
cual la producción en ciclo cerrado es una alternativa atractiva para el país. El Perú, hoy en
día, está comprometido con la eficiencia de recursos y un desarrollo bajo en carbono, hay un
plan de diversificación productiva y en el sector
empresarial se invierte en ecoeficiencia. Nos
falta dar sin embargo, un paso a la ecoefectividad, hacia una economía circular.
2014 I Page 25
A partir de los aportes de los especialistas invitados y de los aportes del público el Sr. Kevin de
Cuba (OEA), resumió las conclusiones del 2do
(1) Se volvió a hacer énfasis en la complementariedad de una producción más limpia, vinculada con la ecoeficiencia, con una producción
en ciclo cerrado, asociada con la ecoefectividad. Siendo la primera necesaria para minimizar los impactos de las industrias desde
los modelos de negocios que ya existen; sin
embargo,la segunda representa la oportunidad
de innovación para replantear nuevos modelos de negocio bajo un enfoque Cradleto-Cradle, la oportunidad para cambiar de
paradigma y pensar en nuevos diseños, en
nuevos procesos, en nuevos productos.
(2) Se evidenció la necesidad de instrumentos
nuevos para implementar una producción en
ciclo cerrado. Conceptualmente el enfoque
Cradle-to-Cradle es aceptado, pero en la realidad necesitamos seguir trabajando en las
condiciones habilitantes. En esta transición
necesitamos buscar la complementariedad
con otros enfoques como el análisis de ciclo
de vida.
(3) Se evidenció el interés de la OEA por impulsar este enfoque de producción en ciclo
cerrado en las Américas y en el caso del
Perú, se evidenciaron las razones por las
cuales esta alternativa es atractiva para el
país. El rol de la OEA, en este sentido, es el
de compartir esta idea innovadora y facilitar
los canales de articulación para que los actores de la sociedad impulsen estos cambios
que nos ayudarán a transitar a una economía
circular y sostenible.
The Social Dimensions of Sustainability - Environmental Justice and the
Governance of Global Resources
Organised by the Swiss Academy of Humanities
and Social Sciences (SAGW), Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern
and WRF
• Report by Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel (CDE)
Workshop chair: Stephan Rist and Sarah-Lan MathezStiefel, CDE
The third of a series of events that have been
organized since 2012 by the Swiss Academy of
Humanities and Social Sciences (SAHSS) and
the World Resource Forum (WRF) as a response
to the WRF’s concern of involving social scientists and the humanities in its multi stakeholder platform activities, this workshop focused
on environmental justice and the governance of
global resources, and was co-organized by the
Centre for Development and Environment (CDE)
of the University of Bern. This bilingual event
(English-Spanish), facilitated by Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel from the CDE, was held on October
22, 2014 from 8:30 to 11:45 am and attended by
over 50 participants.
Environmental justice aims to link distributive
(social) justice with issues related to differentiated impacts on social groups by positive and
negative environmental externalities, and the
question of the rights of non-human communities of the biosphere (ecological justice). Environmental justice is given if the equal distribution
of social and ecological goods and services are
recognized and allow the expression and legitimate participation of different social groups
in adequate ways, recognizing that this needs
to be balanced with the requirements deriving
from ecological justice. As a concept and approach that integrates various elements stemming
from theories of social sciences and humanities
as well as elements emerging from social and environmental movements, environmental justice
has increasingly gained attention in recent years
from public and private actors at local to global
policy forums, as well as within the communities
dealing with sustainable development.
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 26
The workshop aimed to address the following
1. What is environmental justice and why is it
a fundamental contribution for more sustainable governance of natural resources?
2. How is environmental justice applied and
used for understanding and enhancing processes of more sustainable governance of
global resources, e.g. related to land, water
or biodiversity?
3. What are potential contributions of environmental justice to the global resource dialogue
and what can be done in order to increase
its relevance and visibility in the sustainable
development agenda?
The workshop started with a series of five 15
minutes presentations, as follows:
1. “Emergence and current thinking on the concept environmental justice.” Video by David
Schlosberg (University of Sydney, Australia).
2. “Environmental conflicts and environmental justice in Peru.” Presentation by Jose de
Echave (Cooperaccion, Peru.)
3. “Natural disasters and environmental justice:
Examples from Eastern Europe.” Presentation by Stefan Dorondel (Francisc I. Rainer
Institute of Anthropology, Romanian Academy of Social Sciences, Romania).
4. “Radical Ecological Democracy: Learnings
from India towards a sustainable and equitable world.” Recorded presentation by Ashish
Kothari Kalpavriksh’s Environment Action
Group, India)
5. “The Rights of Mother Earth and Integral Development for Living Well: the Bolivian experience.” Presentation by Benecio Quispe
(Plurinational Authority for the Rights of
Mother Earth of Bolivia) and Freddy Delgado
(AGRUCO, University of Cochabamba, Bolivia).
that the concept has greatly spread in recent
years both geographically, and from the local
to the global levels. José de Echave reminded
us that 40% of all internal conflicts have an
environmental origin, according to UNEP (and
this figures rises to 47% in Peru). In the Peruvian case, he stated that environmental conflicts
reflect governability breaches, and explained
how these conflicts were increasing in number
and intensity, but also broadening their focus
from resistance to extractive projects to also
questioning of public policies. Stefan Dorondel described a case of flagrant environmental
injustice in Eastern Europe, taking the example of
a flood produced by the Danube in April 2006 and
the consequences over poor villages lying along
the Lower Danube. He showed how the political
and economic elite took advantages from this
disaster whereas poor people bore the tragic consequences of the event. Ashish Kothari, in his
pre-recorded presentation, stressed the fact that
“development” as growth at all costs is violence
against nature and people. He presented the proposal of “radical ecological democracy”, based
on concrete experiences and initiatives from
India. This “recipe” for transformational alternatives consists of: 1) new politics, 2) new economics of permanence, 3) just society, 4) ways of
knowing, and 5) values and principles. Freddy
Delgado, on behalf of Benecio Quispe, explained
the historical process witnessed by Bolivia towards ecological justice, with the approval of the
Framework Law on Mother Earth and Integral
Development for Living Well in 2012. This laws
presents the basis of the integral development for
living well, in harmony and balance with Mother
Earth for Living Well. It secures the regeneration
capacity of the components and life systems of
Mother Earth, and recognises a complementarity
between rights, obligations and duties.
In his video, David Schlosberg started by defining “justice” from the view of environmental
justice movements, a definition focusing on the
inequity in the distribution of environmental
bads, the reasons behind these inequities, the
issue of cultural and social recognition, the need
for participation, and the needs and capabilities
of different social groups. He stressed the fact
2014 I Page 27
The presentations were followed by a highly interactive debate with the participants, using the
“fish bowl” methodology. Four main conclusions emerged from the discussion:
1. Environmental justice is a fundamental aspect of sustainability. Inter- and intra-generational justice an essential pre-condition of
sustainable development. Furthermore, a
sustainable and functioning environment is
the basis for social justice (environment is
not just another aspect of social injustice, it
is fundamental).
2. There is a need to re-think the current vision
and paradigm of development as growth,
and recognize the ecological limits of our
planet. There is also the need to develop
new cross-sectorial tools, approaches, and
indicators of sustainable development (ex.
Index of environmental degradation).
3. There is a need for participation of all stakeholders and inclusion of plural perspectives
in the debate of global resources, especially
those from so-called non-scientific actors,
including indigenous and local groups. This
can be promoted through a dialogue between
different forms of knowledge.
4. Rights come with responsibilities and duties.
There is a co-responsibility that has to be assumed between the State, the private sector,
and the civil society, a duty of care for the
natural environment and for society.
Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel, CDE
A Dialogue on Decoupling Strategies
for Sustainable Development: How to
make it happen?
Organised by the United Nations Environmental
Programme (UNEP)
• Report by María José Baptista, UNEP
Workshop chair: Margarita Astrálaga, UNEP Regional
Office for Latin America and the Caribbean
Human wellbeing is directly linked to the way
in which we manage and protect our natural resources. Given the finite nature of our non-renewable natural resource base, the global economy
can only flourish and continue to bring the
benefits to everyone on the planet, now and in
the future, if we re-think the way in which we
consume our resources and manage our waste,
select our technologies and production systems,
design our institutions and relate to nature. Decoupling economic growth from environmental
degradation is a plausible pathway to respond
effectively to one of the core challenges of our
time, meeting the needs of nine billion people in
2050 in terms of energy, land, water, food and
material supply, while keeping climate change,
biodiversity loss and other impacts within the
Earth’s carrying capacity.
The International Resource Panel (IRP) is a
science-policy platform launched in 2007 by
the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) to provide decision makers and other
interested parties with independent and authoritative scientific assessments about the use of
natural resources and its environmental impacts.
Its assessment reports crystallize the latest scientific, technical and socio-economic literatures
on global resource use with the objective of
improving the sustainable management of natural resources and contributing to decoupling
of escalating resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. To date, a
total of 28 scientists work together with representatives from more than 30 governments and
civil society organisations to respond effectively to some of the greatest global challenges
in natural resource management.IRP findings
note that though increasing resource productivity is important, transformative change is
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 28
needed to realise factor improvements in consumption and production patterns. In this regard, the IRP has been providing policy-makers
with growing scientific evidence that decoupling will be one of the next big opportunities
for innovation, wise use of resources, and thus
for continued economic development . Translating scientific findings into action, UNEP is also
working in the evolving area of sustainabilityfocused innovation or eco-innovation. Eco-innovation integrates sustainability into the strategy
level of a company, throughout its operations
and along the value chain, ensuring its economic viability, reduced environmental impacts,
positive social impacts as well as its long-term
competitiveness. UNEP›s eco-innovation work
aims to build local capacity and resources for
eco-innovation in developing and emerging economies. It highlights key messaging for both the
business and policy cases for action - including
the role of technologies for innovation.
The side-event presented sectorial and regional
options to achieve decoupling of natural resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth, moving from theory to practice.
The presentation based on the new IRP report,
Decoupling 2: technologies, opportunities and
policy options focused on global trends and
opportunities through technology and policy
change. The presentation on Assessing Global
Land Management: Balancing consumption with
Sustainable Supply focused on global opportunities for sustainable land management. Prof. Dr.
María Amélia Enríquez, member of the IRP and
Deputy Secretary of the Commerce Bureau of Industry and Mining of the State of Pará, presented
these opportunities at the regional level for the
mining sector in Latin America. Marcos Alegre,
Executive Director of the National Cleaner Production Centre of Peru, presented the application
of decoupling in the business sector.
The event consisted of keynote presentations
followed by Q&A sessions. Highlights of each
presentation are provided below.
1. Moving towards Absolute Decoupling: Policy
Options and Technological Opportunities – Presentation by Dr. Yi-Heng Cheng, Member of the Club of
A flagship assessment of the International Resource Panel (Decoupling natural resource
use and environmental impacts from economic growth) showed some signs of progress in
the global transition towards decoupling. The
follow-up IRP report launched in June (Decoupling 2: technologies, opportunities and policy
options) points out to existing technological opportunities and policy options for both developing and developed countries to accelerate this
progress and reap the environmental and economic benefits of increased resource productivity.
Many resource-efficient technologies and techniques are commercially available and widely
used in developing and developed economies.
They allow economic output to be achieved with
fewer resource inputs so reducing waste, savings
costs and mitigating risks of resource scarcity
and price volatility:
• The technical potential to reduce energy demand through improved efficiency is in the
order of 50-80% for most production and utility systems.
• Solar thermal cookers have achieved five-fold efficiency improvements, making it
possible and cost-effective to cook food by
sunlight instead of biomass and fossil fuels.
• 60-80% improvements in energy and water
efficiency are technically possible and commercially viable in sectors such as construction, agriculture, hospitality, industry and
• By adopting decoupling technologies, developing countries could cut the increase in
annual energy demand by more than half
over the next 12 years while realizing their
development goals.
• Advanced furnace technology with co-generation could achieve up to a 40 per cent
reduction in energy intensity for zinc, tin,
copper, and lead smelting and processing.
2014 I Page 29
• Use of higher-strength steel achieves a 32%
reduction in the weight of steel columns and
a 19% reduction in beams.
There are forms of policy available to promote
decoupling. Two that illustrate the policy mix
needed are:
• Taxation or subsidy reduction to move resource prices upwards in line with documented increases in resource productivity.
• Shift revenue-raising onto resource prices
through taxation of resources or in relation to
product imports, with recycling of revenues
back to the economy.
2. Decoupling Economic Growth from Environmental Impacts of Mineral Extraction: Opportunities in Latin America – Presentation by Prof. Dr.
María Amélia Enríquez, member of the International Resource Panel (UNEP); Deputy Secretary of
Commerce Bureau of Industry and Mining of the
State of Pará.
Latin America (LA) has 13 out of the 15 largest
mineral producers of the world and some of the
planet’s richest mineral resource endowments
(e.g. 65% of global reserves of lithium, 42% of
silver, 38% of copper, 21% of iron). The economic contribution of the mining sector to regional GDP is significant and rapidly increasing.
The economic rent of the mining sector in the
region, as a percentage of GDP, tripled in 20042009 compared with the 2000-2003 period, rising
from 0.6% to 1.98% of regional GDP. Mining
sector profitability in LA has reached unprecedented historic levels and exceeds profitability
indicators of all other economic sectors in the
Prof. Dr. María Amélia Enríquez, IRP UNEP
However, there are few signs of decoupling occurring in this sector. As the industry grows, so
do environmental impacts associated with mineral extraction activities. Intensive use of energy
and water resources, greenhouse gas emissions,
loss of high-value biodiversity, land degradation
and air pollution, among others.
Rather than limiting mineral extraction expansion countries should look at adopting extraction
targets to curb mineral related conflicts. This can
be done through adequate land use planning, to
protect environmentally fragile areas (in consultation with the local population); and through a
tax reform to capture mineral rents and induce
more sustainable practices.
3.Assessing Global Land Use: Balancing
Consumption with Sustainable Supply – Presentation by Prof. Dr. Walter Pengue, member of the
International Resource Panel (UNEP); Professor,
General Sarmiento University and University of
Buenos Aires.
Under business as usual conditions, the growing
demand for food and non-food biomass could
lead to a gross expansion of cropland in the
range of 320 to 850 million hectares by 2050.
Increasing yields alone cannot compensate expansion of such magnitude. While productivity
levels have experienced an impressive increase
over the past 50 years, yield gains have started to
stagnate in some regions. At the same time, land
degradation continues to expand, affecting today
an estimated 23% of global soils and in its severe
form leads to the abandonment and shift of 2 to
5 million hectares of cropland a year.cscsA new
assessment report of the International Resource
Panel (Assessing Global Land Management: Ba-
Dr. Walter Pengue, IRP UNEP
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 30
lancing consumption with Sustainable Supply)
found that gross expansion of croplands by 2050
could be limited to somewhere between 8%
and 37%, provided a multi-pronged strategy is
followed for meeting the food, energy and other
requirements of the global economy. Such a
strategy would need to increase efficiency levels
across the life cycle of agricultural commodities
and also in the use and re-use of land-based resources.
Overall, the combination of consumption-oriented measures such as the improvement of diets
to enhance efficiency in biomass use and its
substitutes, delinking the biofuels and food markets, the reduction of food loss and waste, the
control of biomaterials consumption; with improved land management and restoration of degraded land, may allow us to save 161 to 319
million hectares of land by 2050.
4. Decoupling in Practice: Embedding Eco-innovation in Business Strategies – Presentation by Prof.
MSc. Marcos Alegre, Executive Director of the National Cleaner Production Centre of Peru, Centro
de Ecoeficiencia y Responsabilidad Social (CER)/
Grupo GEA.
Business and industry worldwide are increasingly recognizing the sustainability imperative
to shift production and consumption patterns to
a new economic paradigm. Science underscores that transformative change is needed - and
that the current predominant approach of incremental improvements is insufficient. A company needs to look beyond its gates to assess
sustainability risks and opportunities throughout
its value chain, and in cooperation with the key
partners to unlock the transformational potential
to deal with these growing external pressures.
UNEP’s work in Eco-innovation seeks to implement this approach, embedding sustainability
into the core decision making of a company and
integrating it throughout all business dimensions, enabling the creation of novel solutions to
satisfy market needs. SMEs are particularly responsive to eco-innovation due to their adaptability and flexibility, and as contributors of as
much as 70% of GDP and two-thirds of formal
employment in developing and emerging economies, they are a potentially a key driver of a
resource efficient economy.
MSc. Marcos Alegre, CER/Grupo GEA
Many eco-innovative companies are showing an
average of a 15% increase in annual growth in
an otherwise flat market. In Brazil, the cosmetic
company Natura compounded an annual growth
rate of 26% from 2005 to 2012. A conducive policy context is also critical to foster innovation.
UNEP‘s eco-innovation work is now moving to
national level implementation with the pilot testing of the eco-innovation methodology through
service providers working with SMEs in the sectors of agri-food, metals and chemicals. In the
Latin American and Caribbean Region, national
technical and policy efforts in Colombia and
Peru will be underway by the end of 2014. The
project will offer replicable models, needed tools
and methodologies and global network based
2014 I Page 31
3. Overview Scientific Sessions and Awards
WRF 2014 received 74 draft papers, from over
25 countries. Around 50% of the contributions
came from Latin America, almost 40% from Europe. The categories were as follows:
• Innovation for Resource Efficiency
• Policies and Stakeholders Participation
• Decoupling Economic Growth and Natural
Resource Use
• Recycling Industries and Cities
• Measuring Progress – Targets and Indicators
• Lifestyles and Education
• Forestry, Climate Change Mitigation and
The topic of Innovation for Resource Efficiency
was most popular; almost 40% of the scientific
contributions were proposed for this category,
followed by Policies and Stakeholders Participation with 15% and other topics.
The best poster award went to:
Measuring Progress – Targets and Indicators:
Marcela P. Costa and Fabio Cirilo (Brazil) – “Ecoefficiency analysis of integrated and non-integrated crop, forestry and livestock production systems in the Brazilian Cerrado”
Yi Heng Cheng (Tongji University, China) and
Heinz Böni (Empa, Switzerland) served as
evaluators for the poster competition.
All WRF 2014 papers/abstracts can be consulted
on the World Resources Forum website. Selection of papers from WRF 2013 and 2014 will be
published in the course of 2015.
The Scientific Committee in charge of the review
of abstract submissions, headed by Christian
Ludwig (Chair Scientific Committee) and Rosario Gómez (Vice Chair Scientific Committee),
consisted of several experts from Latin American
countries, supplemented with international colleagues from other continents.
With support of the Scientific Session Chairs
and the Scientific Committee three presentations
were awarded with the WRF Scientific Award:
• Resource Efficiency:
Daphne Regina Candia Gauna and Agena Llanos
Zevallos (Peru) – “Economic potential exploitation of secondary waste from the fishing industry
and high quality collagen production as alternative for mitigation of environmental pollution”
Christian Ludwig - Chair Scientific Committee
Rosario Gómez - Vice Chair Scientific Committee
• Policies:
Antti Lippo (Finland) – “Resource Efficiency Program for Cities – towards resource wisdom”
• Recycling Industries and Cities:
Brajendra Mishra (USA) – “Critical Materials
Recycling and Recovery“
Agena Llanos Zevallos
Meeting Report 2013
2014 I Page 32
4. High Satisfaction with WRF 2014
Participants Survey
A large majority of participants of WRF 2014,
which took place in Arequipa, October 19–22,
2014, is (very) satisfied with the event. This can
be concluded from the results of the participants’
survey. 87% of all respondents were either “very
satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied” with the WRF
2014 event as a whole.
The venue of WRF 2014, the Cerro Juli Convention Centre, was also very much appreciated
and was rated by 91% as “excellent” or “above
average”. The WRF team additionally wanted to
know how the participants perceived the logistical organisation of the event like registration,
hotel reservation etc. 60% of participants concluded that the organisation was “excellent” or
“above average”. However, the open question
show that there is some room for improvement,
in particular in relation to the catering service
(e.g. serve native food) or the transportation
from and to the venue. The comments will be
considered by the organising committee to
further improve the WRF events. In relation to
the content of the conference, an overwhelming
91% of the responses considered the substantive
organisation (agenda, choice of speakers, workshops etc.) as “excellent” or “above average”.
The next question of our survey aimed at the
choice of topics and how appropriate they were
for the conference. A large 98% of the responding participants found themselves “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied” with the chosen
topics. With regard to the quality of the plenary
speeches the feedback is also very favourable, as
90% of the responding participants liked these
presentations and considered them as “excellent” or “above average”. The interaction with
the audience was also much prised, as replies
to the open question indicate. The quality of the
workshops and parallel session was likewise judged as “excellent” or “above average” as 92%
selected these answers. The next question was
tackling the issue of what stakeholder group the
WRF participants would like to see more often in
future events. 54% of the respondent mentioned
the academia, 48% mentioned representatives of
the business sector, 44% political leaders and
41% NGOs. This feedback supports WRF in its
strategy to be the global science-based platform
for sharing knowledge about the economic, political, social and environmental implications of
global resource use and its commitment to build
bridges among researchers, policymakers, business, SMEs, NGOs and the public. The last question of our survey was related to social media
and whether the WRF Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn WRF pages are liked. 80% of the participants
responded positively.
2014 I Page 33
Appendix 1: WRF 2014 Programme
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 34
2014 I Page 35
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 36
Appendix 2: Scientific Sessions Programme
October 20, 2014: 16h00 – 18h00
Topic 1: Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Chair: Juan Reiser (Peru)
Transport Innovation with ITC technologies to reduce GHG
(Renato C. Botto, Brasil)
Coupling Earth Observation Data into a hydrological model for an Andean Basin
(Saul Montoya, Peru)
Resource Efficiency Assessment within Interlinked Production Systems - A Small and Medium
Sized Enterprise-capable Approach
(Dennis C. Bakir, Germany)
4. An innovative methodology to scale-up energy efficiency in the brick sector
(Patricia Tord, Peru)
5. The Potential of Alternative Biomass Based Gas Turbine Cycles in Latin America
(Arturo Manrique Carrera, Sweden)
6. Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries – The Implications of Sen’s Capability
Approach and Lund’s Choice Awareness Theory
(Claudia J. Kuhnke, Germany)
Topic 2: Policies and Stakeholder Participation
Chair: Richard Anthony (USA)
The Game with Impact: Gamification in Environmental Education and Entrepreneurship
(Alexandr Iscenco, Moldova)
Decision Making in WEEE Management: the Contribution of the Actor-Network Theory
(Sandra Méndez-Fajardo, Colombia)
Resource Efficiency Program for Cities – towards resource wisdom
(Antti Lippo, Finland)
Covering the last mile in the Brazilian Amazon – The role of knowledge-sharing strategies in
the provision of universal electricity access
(Maria Fernanda Gomez Galindo, Sweden)
5. Developing an environmentally aware University
(Joan Amir Arroyave-Rojas, Colombia)
6. Methods for assessing local environmental impact of the Installation of biorefinery
(Bertrand Laratte, France)
Topic 3: Recycling Industries and Cities
Chair: Bill Worrell (USA.)
Recycling of Scarce Metals from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
(Heinz Böni, Switzerland)
Open Loop Recycling Options for Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs)
(Mathias Schluep, Switzerland)
Resource Efficient Product Provision - Closing the resources loop for waste mobile phones
(Nicoleta Gurita, Germany)
Resource efficiency in industrial SMEs: Drivers and effects on productivity
(Lourdes C. Fernandez Felipe-Morales, Peru)
2014 I Page 37
October 21, 2014: 08h30 – 10h30
Topic 4: Forestry, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption
Chair: Tobias Welz (Germany)
1. Women and agroecological systems in Bolivia
(Ana Dorrego, Bolivia)
2. The impact of climate change on food production in the Andes: the case of Cusco in southern
Peru (Cesar Del Pozo Loayza, Peru)
3. Influencing REDD+; Stakeholder Participation in Ghana’s REDD+ Process
(Abdul-Razak Saeed, UK)
4. Natural regeneration in environmental liabilities post alluvial mining district of Huepetuhe Manu - Madre de Dios, Peru
(Carlos Nieto Ramos, Peru)
Topic 5: Decoupling Economic Growth and Natural Resource Use
Chair: Ron Zevenhoven (Finland)
1. Business models for a circular world: the case of metals
(Nicholas H. Florin, Australia)
2. Measuring Economic Performance and Social Progress of Brazil: An Application of the Stiglitz-Sen-Fotoussi Commission Proposal for Brazilian Regions
(Paulo Henrique Feitosa, Brasil)
3. Hacia una construcción de una noción operacional del desarrollo sostenible
(Francisco J. Correa, Colombia)
4. How a closed carbon cycle can fail the target of decoupling – a case study of a biogas plant in
(Klaus Wiesen, Germany)
Topic 1: Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Chair: Janeth Sanabria Gómez (Colombia)
Global Mapping of Hotspots Analysis Approaches - Identifying critical resources
(Sonia Valdivia, France)
Life Cycle Analysis for Bricks and Concrete Blocks in San Jeronimo, Cusco
(Adrian Montalvo, Peru)
Heavy Hydrocarbon Mixtures as fuel for Standard SIEMENS Dry Low Emissions (DLE) Gas
(Mats Andersson, Sweden)
4. Design Installation and Quality Improvement of Air Conditioning Unit Condensate as Drinking
(Fachrina D. Puspitasari, Indonesia)
5. Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of steel: state of art and methodology development
(Daryna Panasiuk, France)
6. The Use of Black Liquor as a Resource of Renewable Energy in the Pulp and Paper Industry in
Brazil. The Innovation and Efficient Use of Natural Resources
(Antonio J. Juliani, Brasil)
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 38
October 21, 2014: 11h00 – 13h00
Topic 1: Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Chair: Christian Ludwig (Switzerland)
1. Preliminary Techno-Economic, Environmental and Risk assessments of a Hybrid Solarised
Gas Turbine Concept
(Fernando Octavio Jimenez Ugarte, Peru)
2. Small Hydropower Potential from Sewage Water Case Study for an Andean City
(Edmundo Villacorta, Norway)
3. Wealth from Waste in the Circular Economy
(Damien Giurco, Australia)
4. Producing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) from steelmaking slags using the slag2pcc
(Ron Zevenhoven, Finland)
5. Innovation for Resource Efficiency - New Fuel Technology
(Aloy Palit, India)
6. Effective management of sub-products through the implementation of «novo technologies» in
landfills. Case study Cajamarca, Caraz and Ayacucho in Peru
(Alberto Huiman, Peru)
October 21, 2014: 17h30 – 19h30
Topic 2: Policies and Stakeholder Participation
Chair: Juan Cristóbal Birbuet (Bolivia) and Margaret Chavez
1. Sustainable resource management in Chile in the light of two globally competing economic
cooperation notions
(Ruya Perincek, UK)
2. International Investment Law as a mean to protect natural resources and the environment,
fostering development. The Conga case as a conflict for water allocation in Peru
(Victor Saco, Switzerland)
3. National Program to Formalize Recyclers: Pro Recycler
(María Albina Ruiz, Peru)
4. National Effort for the Environmental Competitiveness of the Brazilian Products
(Antonio J. Juliani, Brasil)
Topic 3: Recycling Industries and Cities
Chair: Mathias Schluep (Switzerland)
1. Anaerobic Digestion as a technology to optimize the management of municipal organic waste
in Colombia
(Katherin Rivera Echavarria, Colombia)
2. Directed Bioprospecting as a strategy for the enhancement of waste and microbial diversity
(Janeth Sanarbia Gomez, Colombia)
3. Critical Materials Recycling and Recovery
(Brajendra Mishra, USA)
2014 I Page 39
October 22, 2014: 08h30 – 10h30
Topic 1: Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Chair: Heinz Böni (Switzerland)
1. myEcoCost - an Automated Accounting System for Natural Resources and Environmental Emission of Products
(Klaus Wiesen, Germany)
2. Tablet of Efficiency Indicators to Stop the Water Stress
(Julio Jesús, Peru)
3. Pyrolysis for coffee pulp valorization
(Jürg Schmidlin, Peru)
4. Life Quality and Sustainability for Hog Breeders
(Ana Hummel, Peru)
5. Economic impact analysis of agricultural insurance as a measure of adaptation to climate
change in three crops: potatoes, corn and beans. A 2030 study. Junín Region.
(Bryan R. Gutiérrez Cortez, Peru)
6. Pollution prevention in water bodies through the elimination of TBTO in marine paints
(Margaret Nieves Chávez Castillo, Peru)
Topic 5: Decoupling Economic Growth and Natural Resource Use
Chair: Sonia Valdivia (Peru)
1. Complex human-nature system interactions in a resource constrained world – systems analysis
of problems associated to resource use and scarcity, and potential solutions aiming at resource
(Deniz Koca, Sweden)
2. Economic potential exploitation of secondary waste from the fishing industry and high quality
collagen production as alternative for mitigation of environmental pollution
(Daphne Regina Candia Gauna, Peru)
3. Zero Waste: the world sustainable growth and development process
(Ana Lucia de Carvalho, USA)
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 40
Appendix 3: Poster Exhibition
Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Innovation for Resource Efficiency
Konovalova, Nastya, Russian Federation
Towards a Resource Efficient Coal Seam Gas Exploitation and Production in Queensland,
Uba de Andrade Junior, Milton Aurelio, Brazil
Anaerobic digestion of vinasse pretreated with advanced photochemical oxidation
Clavijo Salinas, Juan Carlos, Colombia
Sustentabilidad y eficiencia económica con variables ambientales para innovaciones en la
producción agrícola. El caso del café en el Perú.
Alvarado, Laura Silvia, Peru
Life Cycle Assessment Enabling Eco-innovations
Motta, Wladmir Henriques, Brazil
Pathways toward Green industry through the Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production
approach Esmeralda Corp. A Peruvian successful case
Terrazos Aguilar, Ana Georgina, Peru
Policies and Stakeholder Participation
Gaining profit while conserving nature through multi-stakeholder partnership
Kiss, Veronika, Hungary
Analysis of Collaborative Processes for Governance to Climate Change in the Ucayali
Region, Peru
Anicama, Jahir, Peru
Citizen Participation in the Conservation of Coastal Wetlands in the region Lima
Heredia, Mikelo, Peru
Recycling Industries and Cities
Taking the high road for recycling e-scrap
Van der Voort, Michiel; Guido Flor, Brazil
Study of hospital solid waste management in the Arequipa province and election of
technological solution of environmental impact retail
Condori Apaza, Renee Mauricio, Peru
Forestry, Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation
Understanding Impacts of Historical Climate Variations on Levels of Lake Rukwa in
Izdori, Fides John, Tanzania
Sources of risk and impact of climate change adaptation strategy on farm productivity: the case of Southern Highlands of Ethopia
Kebede, Kalkidan Assefa
2014 I Page 41
The Climate Change and Impacts of Chemical Transformations of the Air Pollution on
Dovbysheva, Tatjana, Belarus
Assessment of the potential of implementing projects of carbon sequestration in value chains of cacao in Peru
Cotrina, Denisse, Peru
Burden sharing, consumption-based emissions and mitigation targets in a global climate
change agreement
Wiebe, Dr. Kirsten Svenja, Germany
Decoupling Economic Growth and Natural Resources Use
Quotas for a better world – How does the energy quota scheme contribute to solve the three problems of environmental economics?
Kiss, Veronika, Hungary
Mapping the antimicrobial studies of copper for public health
Paucar, Tellys, Peru
Advocating for resource use capping
Kiss, Veronika, Hungary
Measuring Progress - Targets and Indicator
Eco-efficiency analysis of integrated and non-integrated crop, forestry and livestock
production systems in the Brazilian Cerrado
Costa, Marcela Porto, Brazil
The Sustainability of Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane in Sao Paulo State – Brazil
Juliani, Antonio José, Brazil
Patterns of scarcity – a systemic view on resource scarcity
Lorenz, Ullrich, Germany
Lifestyles and Education
The Involvement Effect of Indonesian Youth Progression Awareness in Country
Development Based on Relativity Law
Miranda, Yolla, Indonesia
Influence of lifestyle on water scarcity
Carlos, Guillermo Miguel, Peru
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 42
Appendix 6: Committees
WRF 2014 Scientific Expert Committee
Christian Ludwig
Heinz Böni
(Chair Scientific Expert Committee)
Paul Scherrer Institute and
Lausanne, Switzerland
Technology and Society Lab, Empa,
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Rosario Gómez
(Vice Chair Scientific Committee)
Universdad del Pacífico, Lima, Peru
Jean Acquatella
United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean (U.N ECLAC), Santiago,
Richard Anthony
Halina Brown
Clark University,
Worcester, U.S.A
Carlos Fernando Cadavid
National Cleaner Production Centre,
Medellín, Colombia
Jairo Chacon
Richard Anthony Associates, San
Diego, U.S.A.
Industrial Engineering, Escuela
Colombiana de Ingenería Julio
Bogotá, Colombia
Cesar Barahona
Martin Charter
National Cleaner Production Centre,
Managua, Nicaragua
Centre for Sustainable Design,
Surrey, U.K.
Jorge A. Bentin
Christian Hagelüken
Corporate Environmental Management, Universidad San Ignacio de
Loyola – USIL,
Lima, Peru
Juan Cristobal Birbuet
Centro de promoción de Technologías Sostenibles (CPTS),
La Paz, Bolivia
Umicore AG & Co. KG,
Hanau-Woflgang, Germany
2014 I Page 43
Luis Alberto Jimenez
Juan Reiser
Economy and Planning, Universidad
Agraria La Molina,
Lima, Peru
Architecture and Urbanism, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú,
Lima, Peru
Ramzy Kahhat
Armin Reller
School of Engineering, Pontificia
Universidad Catolica del Peru,
Lima, Peru
Harald Mattenberger
University of Applied Sciences Burgenland,
Pinkafeld, Austria
Juan Pablo Montero
Department of Economics, Pontificia
Universidad Católica de Chile,
Santiago de Chile, Chile
Daniel Müller
Trondheim, Norway
Mario Omar Opazo
University of Augsburg,
Augsburg, Germany
Markus Reuter
Janeth Sanabria Gómez
School of Environmental & Natural
Resources Engineering, Universidad
del Valle-Sede Meléndez,
Santiago de Cali, Colombia
Mathias Schluep
World Resources Forum,
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Franz Georg Simon
Environmental Engineering, Universidad del Bosque,
Bogotá, Colombia
Federal Institute for Materials Research,
Berlin, Germany Claudia Penia
Fabio Soares de Melo
Chilean Life Cycle Network, Chile
Institute of Education and Research
(INSPER) and Soares de Melo Law
São Paulo, Brasil
Meeting Report 2013
2014 I Page 44
Guido Sonnemann
Institut de Sciences
Bordeaux, France
Walter Stahel
The Product-Life Institute and The
Geneva Association,
Geneva, Switzerland
Sangwon Suh
Bren School of Environmental Sciences and Management, University of
Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A
Patrick Wäger
St. Gallen, Switzerland Markku Wilenius
Finland Futures Research Centre,
Turku, Helsinki, Finland
William Worrell
San Luis Obispo County
Integrated Waste Management Authority
San Luis Obispo, U.S.A. Ron Zevenhoven
Åbo Akademi University,
Åbo, Finland
2014 I Page 45
WRF 2014 Organizing Committee
Mariano Castro
Vice Minister
Ministry of Environment,
Lima, Peru Xaver Edelmann
(Chairman Steering Committee)
Empa, World Resources Forum,
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Oscar Espinoza
Lima, Peru
María Lucía Híjar
Wordl Resources Forum,
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Bas de Leeuw
World Resources Forum,
St. Gallen, Switzerland
Rafael Núñez
Organización Gestión de Destino
Arequipa OGD,
Arequipa, Peru
Martin Peter
Swiss State Secretariat at Economic
Affaris (SECO)
Lima, Peru
Christian Robin
Swiss State Secretariat at Economic
Affaris (SECO)
Lima, Peru
Marcos Alegre Chang
National Cleaner Production Centre,
CER/Grupo GEA,
Lima, Peru
Alfonso Eguiluz
Organización Gestión de Destino
Arequipa OGD,
Arequipa, Peru
Meeting Report 2014
2013 I Page 46
Appendix 7: Sponsors and Partners
Contact information Lerchenfeldstrasse 5, CH-9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland
WRF Secretariat Phone + 41 71 554 09 00
[email protected]
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